Warning: this is an htmlized version!
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\documentclass[oneside]{book}
\usepackage[colorlinks]{hyperref}
\begin{document}
\def\Set{\mathbf{Set}}
\catcode`Ã=13 \defÃ{\times}
\catcode`β=13 \defβ{\beta}
\catcode`»=13 \def»{\lambda}

{\bf An Introduction to Categorical Semantics (``For Children'')}

\medskip

One great way to make the expression ``for children'' precise in
mathematical titles is to {\sl define} ``children'' as ``people
without mathematical maturity'', in the sense that they are not able
to understand structures that are too abstract straight away --- they
need particular cases first.

% On children:
% (find-xpdfpage "~/LATEX/2015children.pdf")
% (ebsp 1 "title")

Consider these four basic theorems of Categorical Semantics: 1) the
categorical models for Intuitionistic Propositional Calculus are the
Heyting Algebras (HAs); 2) the categorical models for the simply-typed
$\lambda$-calculus with products are the Cartesian Closed Categories
(CCCs); 3) HAs are CCCs with one extra condition, namely that each
hom-set has at most one element; 4) $\Set$ is a CCC. Let's refer to
them as ``1--4''.

Theorems 1--4 involve lots of definitions and this makes them quite
hard to understand when they are proved in the usual way --- ``for
adults'' --- in which the most general case is done first.

The first part of this minicourse will be centered on proving 1--4
``for children''. We will see how to interpret on sets the
lambda-notation with types, and use that to formalize a common trick
in Category Theory that is seldom explained: the trick of the ``the''.
In an expression like ``We write $(AÃ)$ for {\sl the} functor that
takes each set $B$ to $AÃB$'' the action of this functor on sets,
$(AÃ)_0$, is told explicitly, but the action of $(AÃ)$ on morphisms,
$(AÃ)_1$, is left for the reader to discover; we know that if $\beta:B
\to B'$ then $(AÃ)_1(\beta):AÃB \to AÃB'$ --- we know the {\sl type}
of the operation $(AÃ)_1$, and what we have to do is to find a
$\lambda$-term with that type and then check that it respects the
naturality conditions. Some of the techniques we will use, like
liftings and parallel diagrams, are sketched in [1].

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% (laq171 15 "20170502" "Categrias")

The second part of the minicourse will be on some less obvious HAs and
CCCs: the planar HAs of [2] and categories of the form $\Set^D$, where
$D$ is a directed graph.

% (laq171 11 "20170425" "LÃgica em ZHAs")
% (ebsp 11 "non-tautologies")
% (ebs     "non-tautologies")

The third part will be on elementary toposes. An elementary topos is
formally just a CCC with pullbacks and a classifier object, but just
as we can interpret $\lambda$-calculus on a CCC we can interpret
``Local Set Theory'' (``LST'') in a topos. LST has lots of operations
and rules, and most of them can be understood easily if we look at
what they ``mean'' in $\Set$ and in categories of the form $\Set^D$,
and we choose the right particular cases.

The fourth and last part of the minicourse will be on tricks for
understanding both the type-theoretical language and the categorical
structures used in [3], again using specialization to particular cases
where everything is easy to draw explicitly.

% (find-books "__cats/__cats.el" "jacobs")
% (find-books "__cats/__cats.el" "jacobs" "4_  First order predicate logic")
% (find-books "__cats/__cats.el" "maclane")
% (find-books "__cats/__cats.el" "maclane" "IV. Adjoints")
% (find-books "__cats/__cats.el" "awodey")
% (find-books "__cats/__cats.el" "awodey" "6.5 lambda-calculus")



\bigskip

[1]: Ochs, Eduardo: {\sl Internal Diagrams and Archetypal Reasoning in
  Category Theory}. Logica Universalis, 2013.

[2]: Ochs, Eduardo: {\sl Intuitionistic Logic for Children, or: Planar
  Heyting Algebras for Children}. Preprint, 2017.

[3]: Jacobs, Bart: {\sl Categorical Logic and Type Theory}. North-Holland, 1999.



\medskip

Eduardo Ochs --- UFF

eduardoochs@gmail.com

Home page: \url{http://angg.twu.net/math-b.html}

\medskip

(Version: 2017fev21)

\end{document}

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