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* Eev: (eev).				How to automate almost everything.

File: eev.info,  Node: Top,  Next: installation,  Prev: (dir),  Up: (dir)


     (find-eevtexinode "sending commands")

* Menu:

* installation::                Installation
* introduction::                Introduction
* loose ends::                  Loose ends
* index::                       Index

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---


* abstract::                    Abstract
* three interfaces::            Three kinds of interfaces
* one thing well::              ``Make each program do one thing well''
* making progs receive cmds::   Making programs receive commands
* sending commands::            Sending Commands
* hyperlinks::                  Hyperlinks
* shorter hyperlinks::          Shorter Hyperlinks
* forward and back::            Keys for following hyperlinks and for going back
* dangerous hyperlinks::        Dangerous hyperlinks
* generating hyperlinks::       Generating Hyperlinks
* returning::                   Returning from hyperlinks
* local copies::                Local copies of files from the internet
* rcfiles::                     rcfiles
* glyphs::                      Glyphs
* compose pairs::               Compose Pairs
* delimited regions::           Delimited regions
* communication channels::      Communication channels
* implementation of channels::  The Implementation of Communication Channels
* anchors::                     Anchors
* e-scripts::                   E-scripts
* splitting eev.el::            Splitting eev.el
* eesteps::                     eesteps
* eepitch::                     Sending lines to processes running in Emacs buffers
* eepitch and rcfiles::         Using eepitch to control unprepared shells
* eepitch-gud::                 Controlling debuggers with eepitch
* eepitch-gdb::                 E-scripting GDB with eepitch
* little debugging languages::  Two little languages for debugging
* inspecting data::             Inspecting data in running programs
* big modular e-scripts::       Big Modular E-scripts
* iskidip::                     Internet Skills for Disconnected People

Loose ends

* this document::               This document
* eev manifesto::               The eev manifesto
* dedication::                  Dedication
* eev-mode-map::                eev-mode-map
* alternative to customize::    A Lisp-ish alternative to customize
* running TeX::                 Running TeX
* ee-wrap::                     ee-wrap
* htmlizing::                   Htmlizing e-scripts

File: eev.info,  Node: installation,  Next: introduction,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Installation

     (find-eev "INSTALL")
     (find-eev "README")
     (find-eev "eev-rctool")

File: eev.info,  Node: introduction,  Next: loose ends,  Prev: installation,  Up: Top

2 Introduction

(See the sections)

* Menu:

* abstract::                    Abstract
* three interfaces::            Three kinds of interfaces
* one thing well::              ``Make each program do one thing well''
* making progs receive cmds::   Making programs receive commands
* sending commands::            Sending Commands
* hyperlinks::                  Hyperlinks
* shorter hyperlinks::          Shorter Hyperlinks
* forward and back::            Keys for following hyperlinks and for going back
* dangerous hyperlinks::        Dangerous hyperlinks
* generating hyperlinks::       Generating Hyperlinks
* returning::                   Returning from hyperlinks
* local copies::                Local copies of files from the internet
* rcfiles::                     rcfiles
* glyphs::                      Glyphs
* compose pairs::               Compose Pairs
* delimited regions::           Delimited regions
* communication channels::      Communication channels
* implementation of channels::  The Implementation of Communication Channels
* anchors::                     Anchors
* e-scripts::                   E-scripts
* splitting eev.el::            Splitting eev.el
* eesteps::                     eesteps
* eepitch::                     Sending lines to processes running in Emacs buffers
* eepitch and rcfiles::         Using eepitch to control unprepared shells
* eepitch-gud::                 Controlling debuggers with eepitch
* eepitch-gdb::                 E-scripting GDB with eepitch
* little debugging languages::  Two little languages for debugging
* inspecting data::             Inspecting data in running programs
* big modular e-scripts::       Big Modular E-scripts
* iskidip::                     Internet Skills for Disconnected People

File: eev.info,  Node: abstract,  Next: three interfaces,  Prev: introduction,  Up: introduction

2.1 Abstract

Interacting with programs with command-line interfaces always involves
a bit of line editing, and each CLI program tends to implement
independently its own minimalistic editing features. We show a way of
centralizing these editing tasks by making these programs receive
commands that are prepared, and sent from, Emacs.  The resulting system
is a kind of Emacs- and Emacs Lisp-based "universal scripting language"
in which commands can be sent to both external programs and to Emacs
itself either in blocks or step-by-step under very fine control from
the user.

File: eev.info,  Node: three interfaces,  Next: one thing well,  Prev: abstract,  Up: introduction

2.2 Three kinds of interfaces

Interactive programs in a Un*x system(1) can have basically three kinds
of interfaces: they can be mouse-oriented, like most programs with
graphical interfaces nowadays, in which commands are given by clicking
with the mouse; they can be character-oriented, like most editors and
mail readers, in which most commands are single keys or short sequences
of keys; and they can be line-oriented, as, for example, shells are: in
a shell commands are given by editing a full line and then typing
"enter" to process that line.

   It is commonplace to classify computer users in a spectrum where the
"users" are in one extreme and the "programmers" are in the other; the
"users" tend to use only mouse-oriented and character-oriented
programs, and the "programmers" only character-oriented and
line-oriented programs.

   In this paper we will show a way to "automate" interactions with
line-oriented programs, and, but not so well, to character-oriented
programs; more precisely, it is a way to edit commands for these
programs in a single central place -- Emacs -- and then send them to
the programs; re-sending the same commands afterwards, with or without
modifications, then becomes very easy.

   This way ("e-scripts") can not be used to send commands to
mouse-oriented programs -- at least not without introducing several new
tricks. But "programmers" using Un*x systems usually see most
mouse-oriented programs -- except for a few that are _intrinsically_
mouse-oriented, like drawing programs -- as being just wrappers around
line-oriented programs than perform the same tasks with different
interfaces; and so, most mouse-oriented programs "do not matter", and
our method of automating interactions using e-scripts can be used to
automate "almost everything"; hence the title of the paper.

   (1): Actually we are more interested in GNU systems than in "real"
Unix systems; the reasons will become clear in the section nnn. By the
way: the term "Unix" is Copyright (C) Bell Labs.

File: eev.info,  Node: one thing well,  Next: making progs receive cmds,  Prev: three interfaces,  Up: introduction

2.3 "Make each program do one thing well"

One of the tenets of the Unix philosophy is that each program should do
one thing, and do it well; this is a good design rule for Unix programs
because the system makes it easy to invoke external programs to perform
tasks, and to connect programs.

   Some of parts of a Unix system are more like "meta-programs" or
"sub-programs" than like self-contained programs that do some clearly
useful task by themselves. Shells, for example, are meta-programs:
their main function is to allow users to invoke "real programs" and to
connect these programs using pipes, redirections, control structures
(`if', `for', etc) and Unix "signals". On the other hand, libraries are
sub-programs: for example, on GNU systems there's a library called GNU
readline that line-oriented programs can use to get input; if a
program, say, `bc' (a calculator) gets its input by calling
`readline(...)' instead of using the more basic function `fgets(...)'
then its line-oriented interface will have a little more functionality:
it will allow the user to do some minimal editing in the current line,
and also to recall, edit and issue again some of the latest commands

File: eev.info,  Node: making progs receive cmds,  Next: sending commands,  Prev: one thing well,  Up: introduction

2.4 Making programs receive commands

     (find-eev "eev.el")
     (find-eev "eev-mini.el" "find-fline")
     (find-eev "INSTALL")
     (find-eev "eev-rctool")

   Many line-oriented programs allow "scripting", which means executing
commands from a file. For example, in most shells we can say `source
~/ee.sh', and the shell will then execute the commands in the file
`~/ee.sh'. There are other ways of executing commands from a file --
like `sh ~/ee.sh' -- but the one with `source' is the one that we'll be
more interested in, because it is closer to running the commands in
`~/ee.sh' one by one by hand: for example, with `source ~/ee.sh' the
commands that change parameters of the shell -- like the current
directory and the environment variables -- will work in the obvious
way, while with `sh ~/ee.sh' they would only change the parameters of a
temporary sub-shell; the current directory and the environment
variables of the present shell would be "protected".

   So, it is possible to prepare commands for a shell (or for scriptable
line-oriented programs; for arbitrary line-oriented programs see the
section nnn) in several ways: by typing them at the shell's interface
-- and if the shell uses readline its interface can be reasonably
friendly -- or, alternatively, by using a text editor to edit a file,
say, `~/ee.sh', and by then "executing" that file with `source
~/ee.sh'. `source ~/ee.sh' is a lot of keystrokes, but that can be
shortened if we can define a shell function: by putting

     function ee () { source ~/ee.sh; }

in the shell's initialization file (`~/.bashrc', `~/.zshrc', ...) we
can reduce `source ~/ee.sh' to just `ee': `e', `e', `enter' -- three

   We just saw how a shell -- or, by the way, any line-oriented program
in which we can define an `ee' function like we did for the shell --
can receive commands prepared in an external editor and stored in a
certain file; let's refer to that file, `~/ee.sh', as a _temporary
script file_. Now it remains to see how an external text editor can
"send commands to the shell", i.e., how to make the editor save some
commands in a temporary script file in a convenient way, that is,
without using too many keystrokes...

File: eev.info,  Node: sending commands,  Next: hyperlinks,  Prev: making progs receive cmds,  Up: introduction

2.5 Sending Commands

GNU Emacs, "the extensible, self-documenting text-editor"
([Stallman79]), does at least two things very well: one is to edit
text, and so it can be used to edit temporary scripts, and thus to send
commands to shells and to line-oriented programs with `ee' functions;
and the other one is to run Lisp. Lisp is a powerful programming
language, and (at least in principle!) any action or series of actions
can be expressed as a program in Lisp; the first thing that we want to
do is a way to mark a region of a text and "send it as commands to a
shell", by saving it in a temporary script file. We implement that in
two ways:

      1: (defun ee (s e)
      2:   "Save the region in a temporary script"
      3:   (interactive "r")
      4:   (write-region s e "~/ee.sh"))
      6: (defun eev (s e)
      7:   "Like `ee', but the script executes in verbose mode"
      8:   (interactive "r")
      9:   (write-region
     10:    (concat "set -v\n" (buffer-substring s e)
     11:            "\nset+v")
     12:    nil "~/ee.sh"))

   `ee' (the name stands for something like `emacs-execute') just saves
the currently-marked region of text to `~/ee.sh'; `eev' (for something
like `emacs-execute-verbose') does the same but adding to the beginning
of the temporary script a command to put the shell in "verbose mode",
where each command is displayed before being executed, and also adding
at the end an command to leave verbose mode.

   We can now use `ee' and `eev' to send a block of commands to a
shell: just select a region and then run `ee' or `eev'. More precisely:
mark a region, that is, put the cursor at one of the extremities of the
region, then type `C-SPC' to set Emacs's "mark" to that position, then
go to other extremity of the region and type `M-x eev' (`C-SPC' and
`M-x' are Emacs's notations for Control-Space and Alt-x, a.k.a.
"Meta-x"). After doing that, go to a shell and make it "receive these
commands", by typing `ee'.

File: eev.info,  Node: hyperlinks,  Next: shorter hyperlinks,  Prev: sending commands,  Up: introduction

2.6 Hyperlinks

     (find-eev "eev.el"      "find-fline")
     (find-eev "eev-mini.el" "find-fline")

   When we are using a system like *NIX, in a part of the time we are
using programs with which we are perfectly familiar, and in the rest of
the time we are using things that we don't understand completely and
that make us have to access the documentation from time to time.  In a
GNU system the documentation is all on-line, and the steps needed to
access any piece of documentation can be automated. We can use Emacs
Lisp "one-liners" to create "hyperlinks" to files:

     A: (info "(emacs)Lisp Eval")
     B: (find-file "~/usrc/busybox-1.00/shell/ash.c")
     C: (find-file "/usr/share/emacs/21.4/lisp/info.el")

These expressions, when executed -- which is done by placing the cursor
after them and then typing `C-x C-e', or, equivalently, `M-x
eval-last-sexp' -- will (A) open a page of Emacs manual (the manual is
a set of files in "Info" format), (B) open the source file
`shell/ash.c' of a program called busybox, and (C) open the file
`info.el' from the Emacs sources, respectively. As some of these files
and pages can be very big, these hyperlinks are not yet very
satisfactory: we want ways to not only open these files and pages but
also to "point to specific positions", i.e., to make the cursor go to
these positions automatically. We can do that by defining some new
hyperlink functions, that are invoked like this:

     A': (find-node "(emacs)Lisp Eval" "C-x C-e")
     B': (find-fline "~/usrc/busybox-1.00/shell/ash.c"
     C': (find-fline "/usr/share/emacs/21.4/lisp/info.el"
                     "defun info")

   The convention is that these "extended hyperlink functions" have
names like `find-xxxnode', `find-xxxfile', or `find-xxxyyy'; as the
name `find-file' was already taken by a standard Emacs function we had
to use `find-fline' for ours.

   Here are the definitions of `find-node' and `find-fline':

     14: (defun ee-goto-position (&optional pos-spec)
     15:   "If POS-SPEC is a string search for its first
     16:    occurrence in the file; if it is a number go to the
     17:    POS-SPECth line; if it is nil, don't move."
     18:   (cond ((null pos-spec))
     19:         ((numberp pos-spec)
     20:          (goto-char (point-min))
     21:          (forward-line (1- pos-spec)))
     22:         ((stringp pos-spec)
     23:          (goto-char (point-min))
     24:          (search-forward pos-spec))
     25:         (t (error "Invalid pos-spec: %S" pos-spec))))
     27: (defun find-fline (fname &optional pos-spec)
     28:   "Like (find-file FNAME), but accepts a POS-SPEC"
     29:   (find-file fname)
     20:   (ee-goto-position pos-spec))
     32: (defun find-node (node &optional pos-spec)
     33:   "Like (info NODE), but accepts a POS-SPEC"
     34:   (info node)
     35:   (ee-goto-position pos-spec)))

   Now consider what happens when we send to a shell a sequence of
commands like this one:

     # (find-node "(gawk)Fields")
     seq 4 9 | gawk '{print $1, $1*$1}'

the shell ignores the first line because of the `#', that makes the
shell treat that line as a comment; but when we are editing that in
Emacs we can execute the ``(find-node ...)' with `C-x C-e'. Hyperlinks
can be mixed with shell code -- they just need to be marked as comments.

   Note: the actual definitions of `eev', `ee-goto-position',
`find-fline' and `find-node' in eev's source code are a bit more
complex than the code in the listings above (lines 6-12 in the previous
section and 14-35 in the current section). In all the (few) occasions
in this paper where we will present the source code of eev's functions
what will be shown are versions that implement only the "essence" of
those functions, stripped down of all extra functionality. The point
that we wanted to stress with those listings is how natural it is to
use Emacs in a certain way, as an editor for commands for external
programs, and with these plain-text hyperlinks that can be put almost
anywhere: the essence of that idea can be implemented in 30 lines of
Lisp and one or two lines of shell code.

   (See also: the section about [_ e-scripts]).

File: eev.info,  Node: shorter hyperlinks,  Next: forward and back,  Prev: hyperlinks,  Up: introduction

2.7 Shorter Hyperlinks

     (find-eev "eev.el"      "code-c-d")
     (find-eev "eev-mini.el" "code-c-d")

   The hyperlinks in lines `A''', `B''' and `C''', below,

     A'': (find-enode "Lisp Eval" "C-x C-e")
     B'': (find-busyboxfile "shell/ash.c" "void\nevalpipe")
     C'': (find-efile "info.el" "defun info")

are equivalent to the ones labeled `A'', `B'', `C'' in Section 5, but
are a bit shorter, and they hide details like Emacs's path and the
version of BusyBox; if we switch to newer versions of Emacs and BusyBox
we only need to change the definitions of `find-busyboxfile' and
`find-efile' to update the hyperlinks.  Usually not many things change
from one version of a package to another, so most hyperlinks continue
to work after the update.

   Eev defines a function called `code-c-d' that makes defining
functions like `find-enode', `find-busyboxfile' and `find-efile' much

     (code-c-d "busybox" "~/usrc/busybox-1.00/")
     (code-c-d "e" "/usr/share/emacs/21.4/lisp/" "emacs")

   The arguments for `code-c-d' are (1) a "code" (the "xxx" in a
`find-xxxfile'), (2) a directory, and optionally (3) the name of a
manual in Info format. The definition of `code-c-d' is not very
interesting, so we won't show it here.

File: eev.info,  Node: forward and back,  Next: dangerous hyperlinks,  Prev: shorter hyperlinks,  Up: introduction

2.8 Keys for following hyperlinks and for going back

Lisp hyperlinks usually extend from a certain position in a line --
usually after a comment sign -- to the end of the line, like this:

     # (find-bashnode "Comments" "`#'")

     ;; (find-elnode  "Comments" "`;'")
     ;; (find-elnode  "Comment Tips" "`;;'")

   The obvious way to follow a hyperlinks like the above is with `C-e
C-x C-e' (`move-end-of-line', then `eval-last-sexp'), but this is so
common an operation that eev implements a shortcut for it: when
eev-mode is active the effect of typing `M-e' (`eek-eval-sexp-eol') is
roughly the same as `C-e C-x C-e'.

   The main difference between `M-e' and `C-e C-x C-e' is how they
behave when called with numeric "prefix arguments": for example, `M-0
M-e' highlights temporarily the Lisp expression instead of executing it
and `M-4 M-e' executes it with some debugging flags turned on, while
`C-x C-e' when called with any prefix argument inserts the result of
the expression at the cursor instead of showing it at the echo area.

   The key `M-E' (`eek-eval-last-sexp') is like `M-e', but it doesn't
move to the end of line; it executes the sexp ending just before point
with the same behavior on prefix arguments as `M-e'.

   So, `M-e' and `M-E' and keys for following hyperlinks. Usually
following a hyperlink creates a new buffer, and we can "go back" by
deleting this new buffer or by just returning to the previous buffer.
Eev-mode defines two keys for that: `M-k' (`ee-kill-this-buffer') and
`M-K' (`bury-buffer').

File: eev.info,  Node: dangerous hyperlinks,  Next: generating hyperlinks,  Prev: forward and back,  Up: introduction

2.9 Dangerous hyperlinks

     (find-eev "eev.el" "find-sh")
     (find-eev "eev-mini.el" "find-sh")

   Note that these "hyperlinks" can do very dangerous things. If we
start to execute blindly every Lisp expression we see just because it
can do something interesting or take us to an interesting place then we
can end up running something like:

     (shell-c_ommand "rm -Rf ~")

which destroy all files in our home directory; not a good idea.
Hyperlinks ought to be safer than that...

   The modern approach to safety in hyperlinks -- the one found in web
browsers, for example -- is that following a hyperlink can execute only
a few kinds of actions, all known to be safe; the "target" of a
hyperlink is something of the form `http://...', `ftp://...',
`file://...', `info://...', `mailto:...' or at worst like
`javascript:...'; none of these kinds of actions can even erase our
files. That approach limits a lot what hyperlinks can do, but makes it
harmless to hide the hyperlink action and display only some descriptive

   Eev's approach is the opposite of that. I wrote the first functions
of eev in my first weeks after installing GNU/Linux in my home machine
and starting using GNU Emacs, in 1994; before that I was using mostly
Forth (on MS-DOS), and I hadn't had a lot of exposure to *NIX systems
by then -- in particular, I had tried to understand *NIX's notions of
user IDs and file ownerships and permissions, and I felt that they were
a thick layer of complexity that I wasn't being able to get through.

   Forth's attitude is more like "the user knows what he's doing"; the
system is kept very simple, so that understanding all the consequences
of an action is not very hard. If the user wants to change a byte in a
critical memory position and crash the machine he can do that, and
partly because of that simplicity bringing the machine up again didn't
use to take more than one minute (in the good old days, of course).
Forth people developed good backup strategies to cope with the
insecurities, and -- as strange as that might sound nowadays, where all
machines are connected and multi-user and crackers abound -- using the
system in the Forth way was productive and fun.

   *NIX systems are not like Forth, but when I started using them I was
accustomed to this idea of achieving simplicity through the lack of
safeguards, and eev reflects that. The only thing that keeps eev's
hyperlinks reasonably safe is "transparency": the code that a hyperlink
executes is so visible that it is hard to mistake a dangerous Lisp
expression for a "real" hyperlink. Also, all the safe hyperlink
functions implemented by eev start with `find-', and all the `find-'
functions in eev are safe, except for those with names like
`find-xxxsh' and `find-xxxsh0': for example,

     (find-sh "wget --help" "recursive download")

executes `wget --help', puts the output of that in an Emacs buffer and
then jumps to the first occurrence of the string `recursive download'
there; other `find-xxxsh' functions are variations on that that execute
some extra shell commands before executing the first argument --
typically either switching to another directory or loading an
initialization file, like `~/.bashrc' or `~/.zshrc'. The `find-xxxsh0'
functions are similar to their `find-xxxsh' counterparts, but instead
of creating a buffer with their output they just show it at Emacs's
echo area and they use only the first argument and ignore the others
(the pos-spec).

File: eev.info,  Node: generating hyperlinks,  Next: returning,  Prev: dangerous hyperlinks,  Up: introduction

2.10 Generating Hyperlinks

     (find-eev "eev-insert.el")
     (find-eevfile "article/ss-m-h.png")
     (find-eevex "screenshots.e" "fisl-screenshots-M-h")
     (find-eev "eev-mini-steps.el" "eek")

   Do we need to remember the names of all hyperlinks functions, like
`find-fline' and `find-node'? Do we need to type the code for each
hyperlink in full by hand? The answers are "no" and "no".

   Eev implements several functions that create temporary buffers
containing hyperlinks, that can then be cut and pasted to other
buffers. For example, `M-h M-f' creates links about an Emacs Lisp
function: typing `M-h M-f' displays a prompt in a minibuffer asking for
the name of an Elisp function; if we type, say, `find-file' there
(note: name completion with the TAB key works in that prompt) we get a
buffer like the one in figure 1.

|# (find-efunction-links 'find-file)                      |
|                                                         |
|# (where-is 'find-file)                                  |
|# (describe-function 'find-file)                         |
|# (find-efunctiondescr 'find-file)                       |
|# (find-efunction 'find-file)                            |
|# (find-efunctionpp 'find-file)                          |
|# (find-efunctiond 'find-file)                           |
|# (find-eCfunction 'find-file)                           |
|# (find-estring (documentation 'find-file))              |
|# (find-estring (documentation 'find-file t))            |
|                                                         |
|# (Info-goto-emacs-command-node 'find-file)              |
|# (find-enode "Command Index" "* find-file:")            |
|# (find-elnode "Index" "* find-file:")                   |
|                                                         |
|                                                         |
|                                                         |
|--:**  *Elisp hyperlinks*   All L18    (Fundamental)-----|

  Figure 1: the result of typing M-h M-f find-file

   The first line of that buffer is a hyperlink to that
dynamically-generated page of hyperlinks. Its function --
`find-efunction-links' -- has a long name that is hard to remember, but
there's a shorter link that will do the same job:

     (eek "M-h M-f find-file")

   The argument to `eek' is a string describing a sequence of keys in a
certain verbose format, and the effect of running, say, `(eek "M-h M-f
find-file")' is the same as of typing `M-h M-f find-file'.

   (`M-h' is a prefix; `(eek "M-h C-h")' shows all the sequences with
the same prefix.)

   (Exceptions: `M-h M-c', `M-h M-2', `M-h M-y'. Show examples of how
to edit hyperlinks with `M-h M-2' and `M-h M-y'.)

   (Mention hyperlinks about a key sequence? `(eek "M-h M-k C-x C-f")')

   (Mention hyperlinks about a Debian package? `(eek "M-h M-d bash")')

File: eev.info,  Node: returning,  Next: local copies,  Prev: generating hyperlinks,  Up: introduction

2.11 Returning from hyperlinks

((Mention M-k to kill the current buffer, and how Emacs asks for
confirmation when it's a file and it's modified))

   ((Mention M-K for burying the current buffer))

   ((Mention what to do in the cases where a hyperlink points to the
current buffer (section 16); there used to be an `ee-back' function
bound to `M-B', but to reactivate it I would have to add back some ugly
code to `to'... (by the way, that included Rubikitch's contributions)))

   ((Web browsers have a way to "return" from hyperlinks: the "back"
button... In eev we have many kinds of hyperlinks, including some that
are unsafe and irreversible, but we have a few kinds of "back"s that
work... 1) if the hyperlink opened a new file or buffer, then to kill
the file or buffer, use `M-k' (an eev binding for `kill-this-buffer';
note that it asks for a confirmation when the buffer is associated to a
file and it has been modified -- or we can use bury-buffer; `M-K' is an
eev binding for `bury-buffer'.  ((explain how emacs keeps a list of
buffers?)) Note: if the buffer contains, say, a manpage, or an html
page rendered by w3m, which take a significant time to generate, then
`M-K' is better is than `M-k'. 2) if the hyperlink was a `to' then it
jumped to another position in the same file... it is possible to keep a
list of previous positions in a buffer and to create an `ee-back'
function (suggestion: bind it to `M-B' but I haver never been satisfied
with the implementations that I did so we're only keeping a hook in
`to' for a function that saves the current position before the jump))

   ((dto recommended `winner-undo'))

File: eev.info,  Node: local copies,  Next: rcfiles,  Prev: returning,  Up: introduction

2.12 Local copies of files from the internet

     (find-eev "rcfiles/.bashrc-psne")
     (find-eev "rcfiles/.zshrc-psne")
     (find-eev "eev-rctool" "new_block_bashrc")

   Emacs knows how to fetch files from the internet, but for most
purposes it is better to use local copies. Suppose that the environment
variable `$S' is set to `~/snarf/'; then running this on a shell

     mkdir -p $S/http/www.gnu.org/software/emacs/
     cd       $S/http/www.gnu.org/software/emacs/
     wget http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html

     # (find-fline "$S/http/www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html")
     # (find-w3m   "$S/http/www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html")

creates a local copy of `emacs-paper.html' inside `~/snarf/http/'. The
two last lines are hyperlinks to the local copy; `find-w3m' opens it
"as HTML", using a web browser called w3m that can be run either in
standalone mode or inside Emacs; `find-w3m' uses w3m's Emacs interface,
and it accepts extra arguments, which are treated as a pos-spec-list.

   Instead of running the `mkdir', `cd' and `wget' lines above we can
run a single command that does everything:

     psne http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html

which also adds a line with that URL to a log file (usually
`~/.psne.log'). It is more convenient to have a `psne' that changes the
current directory of the shell than one that doesn't, and for that it
must be defined as a shell function.

File: eev.info,  Node: rcfiles,  Next: glyphs,  Prev: local copies,  Up: introduction

2.13 rcfiles

     (find-eev "INSTALL")
     (find-eev "eev-rctool")
     (find-eevsh "./eev-rctool notes")
     (find-eev     "eev-rctool" "notes")
     (find-eev     "eev-rctool"     "new_block_emacs")
     (find-eev     "eev-rctool"     "new_block_emacs")
     (find-eev     "eev-rctool" "current_block_gdbinit")

   Eev comes with an installer script, called `eev-rctool', that can
help in adding the definitions for eev (like the `function ee () {
source ~/ee.sh;}' of section 3) to initialization files like
`~/.bashrc' (such initialization files are termed "rcfiles").
Eev-rctool does _not_ add by default the definitions for `psne' and for
`$S' to rcfiles; however, it adds commented-out lines with
instructions, which might be something like:

     # To define $S and psne uncomment this:
     #   . $EEVTMPDIR/psne.sh
     # (find-eevtmpfile "psne.sh")

File: eev.info,  Node: glyphs,  Next: compose pairs,  Prev: rcfiles,  Up: introduction

2.14 Glyphs

     (find-eev "eev-glyphs.el")
     (find-eev "eev-math-glyphs.el")
     (find-eev "eev-mini.el" nil "eev-glyph-face-red")
     (find-eev "eev-sshot.el")

   Emacs allows redefining how characters are displayed, and one of the
modules of eev -- eev-glyphs -- uses that to make some characters stand
out. Character 15, for example, is displayed on the screen by default
as `^O' (two characters, suggesting "control-O"), sometimes in a
different color from normal text(3).]

   Eev changes the appearance of char 15 to make it be displayed as a
red star. Here is how: Emacs has some structures called "faces" that
store font and color information, and `eeglyphs-face-red' is a face
that says "use the default font and the default background color, but a
red foreground"; eev's initialization code runs this,

     (eev-set-glyph 15 ?* 'eev-glyph-face-red)

which sets the representation of char 15 to the "glyph" made of a star
in the face `eeglyphs-face-red'.

   For this article, as red doesn't print well in black and white, we
used this instead:

     (eev-set-glyph 15 342434)

this made occurrences of char 15 appear as the character 342434, `*'
(note that this is outside of the ascii range), using the default face,
i.e., the default font and color.

   Eev also sets a few other glyphs with non-standard faces. The most
important of those are `«' and `»', which are set to appear in green
against the default background, with:

     (eev-set-glyph 171 171 'eev-glyph-face-green)
     (eev-set-glyph 187 187 'eev-glyph-face-green)

   There's a technical point to be raised here. Emacs can use several
"encodings" for files and buffers, and `«' and `»' only have character
codes 171 and 187 in a few cases, mainly in the `raw-text' encoding and
in "unibyte" buffers; in most other encodings they have other char
codes, usually above 255, and when they have these other codes Emacs
considers that they are other characters for which no special glyphs
were set and shows them in the default face. This visual distinction
between the below-255 `«' and `»' and the other `«' and `»'s is
deliberate -- it helps preventing some subtle bugs involving the anchor
functions of section [anchors].

   (3). Determined by the "face" `escape-glyph-face', introduced in GNU
Emacs in late 2004.

File: eev.info,  Node: compose pairs,  Next: delimited regions,  Prev: glyphs,  Up: introduction

2.15 Compose Pairs

     (find-eev "eev-compose.el")

   To insert a `*' in a text we type `C-q C-o' -- `C-q' "quotes" the
next key that Emacs receives, and `C-q C-o' inserts a "literal C-o",
which is a char 15. Typing `«' and `»'s -- and other non-standard
glyphs, if we decide to define our own -- involves using another module
of eev: `eev-compose'.

   Eev-compose defines a few variables that hold tables of "compose
pairs", which map pairs of characters that are easy to type into other,
weirder characters; for example, `eev-composes-otheriso' says that the
pair `<<' is mapped to `«' and that `>>' is mapped to `»', among
others. When we are in "eev mode" the prefix `M-,' can be used to
perform the translation: typing `M-, < <' enters `«', and typing `M-, >
>' enters `»'.

   The variable `eev-composes-accents' holds mappings for accented
chars, like `'a' to `á' and `cc' to `ç'; `eev-composes-otheriso' takes
care of the other mappings that still concern characters found in the
ISO8859-1 character set, like `«' and `»' as above, `_a' to `ª', `xx' to
`×', and a few others; `eev-composes-globalmath' and
`eev-composes-localmath' are initially empty and are meant to be used
for used-defined glyphs. The suffix `math' in their names is a relic:
Emacs implements its own ways to enter special characters, which
support several languages and character encodings, but their code is
quite complex and they are difficult to extend; the code that
implements eev's `M-,', on the other hand, takes about just 10 lines of
Lisp (excluding the tables of compose pairs) and it is trivial to
understand and to change its tables of pairs. `M-,' was created
originally to enter special glyphs for editing mathematical texts in
TeX, but it turned out to be a convenient hack, and it stuck.

File: eev.info,  Node: delimited regions,  Next: communication channels,  Prev: compose pairs,  Up: introduction

2.16 Delimited regions

     (find-eev "eev-bounded.el")
     (find-eev "eev-mini.el" "eeb-default")
     (find-eev "doc/shot-f3.png")
     (find-eev "anim/gdb.anim")

   Sometimes it happens that we need to run a certain (long) series of
commands over and over again, maybe with some changes from one run to
the next; then having to mark the block all the time becomes a hassle.

   One alternative to that is using a variaton on `M-x eev': `M-x
eev-bounded'. It saves the region around the cursor up to certain
delimiters instead of saving what's between Emacs's "point" and "mark".

   The original definition of eev-bounded was something like this:

     (defun eev-bounded ()
       (eev (ee-search-backwards "\n#*\n")
            (ee-search-forward   "\n#*\n")))

the call to `ee-search-backwards' searches for the first occurrence of
the string `\n#*\n' (newline, hash sign, control-O, newline) before
the cursor and returns the position after the `\n#*\n', without moving
the cursor; the call to `ee-search-forward' does something similar with
a forward search.  As the arguments to `eev' indicate the extremities
of the region to be saved into the temporary script, this saves the
region between the first `\n#*\n' backwards from the cursor to the
first `\n#*\n' after the cursor.

   The actual definition of `eev-bounded' includes some extra code to
highlight temporarily the region that was used; see [Figure F3].
Normally the highlighting lasts for less than one second, but here we
have set its duration to several seconds to produce a more interesting

 ____________________ emacs@localhost _______________________
|                                                _________ xterm __________
|#*                                             |/home/edrx(edrx)# ee      |
|# Global variables                             |# Global variables        |
|lua50 -e '                                     |lua50 -e '                |
|  print(print)                                 |  print(print)            |
|  print(_G["print"])                           |  print(_G["print"])      |
|  print(_G.print)                              |  print(_G.print)         |
|  print(_G)                                    |  print(_G)               |
|  print(_G._G)                                 |  print(_G._G)            |
|'                                              |'                         |
|#*                                             |function: 0x804dfc0       |
|# Capture of local variables                   |function: 0x804dfc0       |
|lua50 -e '                                     |function: 0x804dfc0       |
|  foo = function ()                            |table: 0x804d420          |
|    local storage                              |table: 0x804d420          |
|    return                                     |/home/edrx(edrx)#         |
|      (function () return storage end),        |__________________________|
|      (function (x) storage = x; return x end)              |
|  end                                                       |
|  get1, set1 = foo()                                        |
|  get2, set2 = foo()               -- Output:               |
|  print(set1(22), get1())          -- 22 22                 |
|  print(set2(33), get1(), get2())  -- 33 22 33              |
|'                                                           |
|#*                                                          |
|                                                            |
|-:--  lua5.e   91% L325    (Fundamental)--------------------|

  Figure 2: sending a delimited block with F3
  (find-fline "ss-lua.png")
  (find-eevex "screenshots.e" "fisl-screenshots")

   Eev binds the key `F3' to the function `eeb-default', which runs the
current "default bounded function" (which is set initially to `eev',
_not_ `eev-bounded') on the region between the current default
delimiters, using the current default "highlight-spec"; so, instead of
typing `M-x eev-bounded' inside the region to save it, we can just type

   All these defaults values come from a single list, which is stored in
the variable `eeb-defaults'. The real definition of `eev-bounded' is
something like:

     (setq eev-bounded
       '(eev ee-delimiter-hash nil t t))

     (defun eev-bounded ()
       (setq eeb-defaults eev-bounded)

   Note that in Emacs Lisp (and in most other Lisps) each symbol has a
value as a variable that is independent from its "value as a function":
actually a symbol is a structure containg a name, a "value cell", a
"function cell" and a few other fields. Our definition of
`eev-bounded', above, includes both a definition of the function
`eev-bounded' and a value for the variable `eev-bounded'.

   Eev has an auxiliary function for defining these "bounded
functions"; running

     (eeb-define 'eev-bounded 'eev 'ee-delimiter-hash nil t t)

has the same effect as doing the `setq' and the `defun' above.

   As for the meaning of the entries of the list `eeb-defaults', the
first one (`eev') says which function to run; the second one
(`ee-delimiter-hash') says which initial delimiter to use -- in this
case it is a symbol instead of a string, and so `eeb-default' takes the
value of the variable `ee-delimiter-hash'; the third one (nil) is like
the second one, but for the final delimiter, and when it is nil
`eeb-default' considers that the final delimiter is equal to the
initial delimiter; the fourth entry (`t') means to use the standard
highlight-spec, and the fifth one (`t', again) tells `eeb-default' to
make an adjustment to the highlighted region for purely aestethical
reasons: the saved region does not include the initial `\n' in the
final delimiter, `\n#*\n', but the highlighting looks nicer if it is
included; without it the last highlighted line in Figure 2 would have
only its first character -- an apostrophe -- highlighted.

   Eev also implements other of these "bounded" functions. For example,
running `M-x eelatex' on a region saves it in a temporary LaTeX file,
and also saves into the temporary script file the commands to process
it with LaTeX; `eelatex-bounded' is defined by

     (eeb-define 'eelatex-bounded 'eelatex
       'ee-delimiter-percent nil t t)

where the variable `ee-delimiter-percent' holds the string `\n%*\n';
comments in LaTeX start with percent signs, not hash signs, and it is
convenient to use delimiters that are treated as comments.

   ((The block below ... tricky ... blah. How to typeset `*' in LaTeX.
Running `eelatex-bounded' changed the defaults stored in
`eeb-defaults', but `ee-once' blah doesn't.))

% (eelatex-bounded)
% (ee-once (eelatex-bounded))
  \hbox to \wd0{\hss#1\hss}%
\catcode`*=13 \def*{\myttbox{$\bullet$}}

   ...for example `eelatex', that saves the region (plus certain
standard header and footer lines) to a "temporary LaTeX file" and saves
into the temporary script file the commands to make `ee' run LaTeX on
that and display the result. The block below is an example of (...)

   ...The block below shows a typical application of `eev-bounded':

     # (find-es "lua5" "install-5.0.2")
     # (find-es "lua5" "install-5.0.2" "Edrx's changes")
     # (code-c-d "lua5" "/tmp/usrc/lua-5.0.2/")
     # (find-lua5file "INSTALL")
     # (find-lua5file "config" "support for dynamic loading")
     # (find-lua5file "config")
     # (find-lua5file "")
     rm   -Rv ~/usrc/lua-5.0.2/
     mkdir -p ~/usrc/lua-5.0.2/
     tar   -C ~/usrc/ \
        -xvzf $S/http/www.lua.org/ftp/lua-5.0.2.tar.gz
     cd       ~/usrc/lua-5.0.2/
     cat >> config <<'---'
     DLLIB= -ldl
     MYLDFLAGS= -Wl,-E
     EXTRA_LIBS= -lm -ldl
     make test  2>&1 | tee omt
     ./bin/lua -e 'print(loadlib)'

it unpacks a program (the interpreter for Lua), changes its default
configuration slightly, then compiles and tests it.

   ((Comment about the size: the above code is "too small for being a
script", and the hyperlinks are important))

   ((gdb (here-documents, gcc, ee-once)))

   ((alternative: here-documents, gcc, gdb, screenshot(s) for gdb))

File: eev.info,  Node: communication channels,  Next: implementation of channels,  Prev: delimited regions,  Up: introduction

2.17 Communication channels

     (find-eev "eev-steps.el")
     (find-eev "eev-mini-steps.el")
     (find-eev "eegchannel")
     (find-eev "anim/channels.anim")

   The way that we saw to send commands to a shell is in two steps:
first we use `M-x eev' in Emacs to "send" a block of commands, and then
we run `ee' at the shell to make it "receive" these commands. But there
is also a way to create shells that "listen" not only to the keyboard
for their input, but also to certain "communication channels"; by
making Emacs send commands through these communication channels we can
skip the step of going to the shell and typing `ee' -- the commands are
received immediately.

|                                    |  ___________channel A______________
|* (eechannel-xterm "A") ;; create   | |/tmp(edrx)# # Send things to port |
|* (eechannel-xterm "B") ;; create   | | 1234                             |
|# Listen on port 1234               | |/tmp(edrx)# {                     |
|netcat -l -p 1234                   | |>   echo hi                       |
|*                                   | |>   sleep 1                       |
|* (eechannel "A") ;; change target  | |>   echo bye                      |
|# Send things to port 1234          | |>   sleep 1                       |
|{                                   | |> } | netcat -q 0 localhost 1234  |
|  echo hi                           | |/tmp(edrx)#                       |
|  sleep 1                           | |/tmp(edrx)#                       |
|  echo bye                          | |__________________________________|
|  sleep 1                           |  ___________channel B______________
|} | netcat -q 0 localhost 1234      | |/tmp(edrx)# # Listen on port 1234 |
|                                    | |/tmp(edrx)# netcat -l -p 1234     |
|-:--  screenshots.e   95% L409   (Fu| |hi                                |
|_Wrote /home/edrx/.eev/eeg.A.str____| |bye                               |
                                       |/tmp(edrx)#                       |
                                       |                                  |
 Figure 3: sending commands to two xterms using F9
 (find-eevex "screenshots.e" "fisl-screenshots")
 (find-eevfile "article/ss-f9.png")

   The screenshot at [Figure 3] shows this at work. The user has started
with the cursor at the second line from the top of the screen in the
Emacs window and then has typed `F9' several times. Eev binds `F9' to a
command that operates on the current line and then moves down to the
next line; if the current line starts with `*' then what comes after
the `*' is considered as Lisp code and executed immediately, and the
current line doesn't start with `*' then its contents are sent through
the default communication channel, or though a dummy communication
channel if no default was set.]

   The first `F9' executed `(eechannel-xterm "A")', which created an
xterm with title "channel A", running a shell listening on the
communication channel "A", and set the default channel to A; the second
`F9' created another xterm, now listening to channel B, and set the
default channel to B.

   The next two `F9's sent each one one line to channel B. The first
line was a shell comment (`# Listen...'); the second one started the
program `netcat', with options to make `netcat' "listen to the internet
port 1234" and dump to standard output what it receives.

   The next line had just `*'; executing the rest of it as Lisp did
nothing. The following line changed the default channel to A.]

   In the following lines there is a small shell program that outputs
"hi", then waits one second, then outputs "bye", then waits for another
second, then finishes; due to the `| netcat...' its output is
redirected to the internet port 1234, and so we see it appearing as the
output of the netcat running on channel B, with all the expected
delays: one second between "hi" and "bye", and one second after "bye";
after that last one-second delay the netcat at channel A finishes
receiving input (because the program between "{" and "}" ends) and it
finishes its execution, closing the port 1234; the netcat at B notices
that the port was closed and finishes its execution too, and both
shells return to the shell prompt.

   There are also ways to send whole blocks of lines at once through
communication channels; see [Section bigmodular].

File: eev.info,  Node: implementation of channels,  Next: anchors,  Prev: communication channels,  Up: introduction

2.18 The Implementation of Communication Channels

     (find-eev "eev-mini-steps.el")
     (find-eev "eev-steps.el")
     (find-eev "eegchannel")
     (find-eev "anim/channels.anim")

   Communication channels are implemented using an auxiliary script
called `eegchannel', which is written in Expect ([L90] and [L95]).  If
we start an xterm in the default way it starts a shell (say,
`/bin/bash') and interacts with it: the xterm sends to the shell as
characters the keystrokes that it receives from the window manager and
treats the characters that the shell sends back as being instructions
to draw characters, numbers and symbols on the screen.  But when we run
`(eechannel-xterm "A")' Emacs creates an xterm that interacts with
another program -- `eegchannel' -- instead of with a shell, and
`eegchannel' in its turn runs a shell and interacts with it.

   Eegchannel passes characters back and forth between the xterm and the
shell without changing them in any way; it mostly tries to pretend that
it is not there and that the xterm is communicating directly with the
shell. However, when eegchannel receives a certain signal it sends to
the shell a certain sequence of characters that were not sent by the
xterm; it "fakes a sequence of keystrokes".

   Let's see a concrete example. Suppose than Emacs was running with
process id ("pid") 1000, and running `(eechannel-xterm "A")' in it made
it create an xterm, which got pid 1001; that xterm ran `eegchannel'
(pid 1002), which ran `/bin/bash' (pid 1003).  Actually Emacs invoked
xterm using this command line:

     xterm -n "channel A" -e eegchannel A /bin/bash

and xterm invoked eegchannel with `eegchannel A /bin/bash'; eegchannel
saw the `A', saved its pid (1002) to the file `~/.eev/eeg.A.pid', and
watched for `SIGUSR1' signals; every time that it (the eegchannel)
receives a `SIGUSR1' it reads the contents of [QQ ~/.eev/eeg.A.str] and
sends that as fake input to the shell that it is controlling. So,

     echo 'echo $[1+2]' > ~/.eev/eeg.A.str
     kill -USR1 $(cat ~/.eev/eeg.A.pid)

in a shell sends the string `echo $[1+2]' (plus a newline) "through the
channel A"; what Emacs does when we type `F9' on a line that does not
start with `*' corresponds exactly to that.

File: eev.info,  Node: anchors,  Next: e-scripts,  Prev: implementation of channels,  Up: introduction

2.19 Anchors

     (find-eev "eev.el" "ee-goto-anchor")
     I need to set local vars to make the "to"s in the examples work.
     ;; (find-eevtexi "eev.texi.lua" "anchors")
     ;; (find-efunction      'ee-goto-anchor)
     ;; (find-efunctiondescr 'ee-goto-anchor)

   The function `to' can be used to create hyperlink to certain
positions -- called "anchors" -- in the current file. For example,

     # Index:
     # «.first_block»        (to "first_block")
     # «.second_block»       (to "second_block")

     # «first_block»  (to ".first_block")
     echo blah
     # «second_block»  (to ".second_block")
     echo blah blah

   What `to' does is simply to wrap its argument inside `«' and `»'
characters and then jump to the first occurrence of the resulting
string in the current file. In the (toy) example above, the line that
starts with `# «.first_block»' has a link that jumps to the line that
starts with `# «first_block»', which has a link that jumps back -- the
anchors and `(to ...)'s act like an index for that file.

   The function `find-anchor' works like a `to' that first opens
another file. For example,

     (find-anchor "~/.zshrc" "update-homepage")

does roughly the same as:

     (find-fline "~/.zshrc" "«update-homepage»")

   Actually `find-anchor' consults a variable, `ee-anchor-format', to
see in which strings to wrap the argument.  Some functions modify
`ee-anchor-format' temporarily to obtain special effects; for example,
a lot of information about the packages installed in a Debian GNU
system is kept in a text file called `/var/lib/dpkg/info/status';
`(find-status "emacs21")' opens this file and searches for the string
`\nPackage: emacs21\n' there -- that string is the header for the block
with information about the package `emacs21', and it tells the size of
the package, description, version, whether it is installed or not, etc,
in a format that is both machine-readable and human-readable.

File: eev.info,  Node: e-scripts,  Next: splitting eev.el,  Prev: anchors,  Up: introduction

2.20 E-scripts

The best short definition for eev that I've found involves some
cheating, as it is a circular definition: "eev is a library that adds
support for e-scripts to Emacs" -- and e-scripts are files that contain
chunks meant to be processed by eev's functions. Almost any file can
contain parts "meant for eev": for example, a HOWTO or README file
about some program will usually contain some example shell commands,
and we can mark these commands and execute them with `M-x eev'; and if
we have the habit of using eev and we are writing code in, say, C or
Lua we will often put elisp hyperlinks inside comment blocks in our
code. These two specific languages (and a few others) have a feature
that is quite convenient for eev: they have syntactical constructs that
allow comment blocks spanning several lines -- for example, in Lua,
where these comment blocks are delimited by `--[[' and `--]]'s, we can
have a block like

     # This file: (find-fline "~/LUA/lstoindexhtml.lua")
     # A test:
     cd /tmp/
     ls -laF | col -x \
       | lua50 ~/LUA/lstoindexhtml.lua tmp/ \
       | lua50 -e 'writefile("index.html", io.read("*a"))'

in a Lua script, and the script will be at the same time a Lua script
and an e-script.

   When I started using GNU and Emacs the notion of an e-script was
something quite precise to me: I was keeping notes on what I was
learning and on all that I was trying to do, and I was keeping those
notes in a format that was partly English (or Portuguese), partly
executable things -- not all of them finished, or working -- after all,
it was much more practical to write

     rm -Rv ~/usrc/busybox-1.00/
     tar -C ~/usrc/ -xvzf \
     cd ~/usrc/busybox-1.00/
     cp -iv ~/BUSYBOX/myconfig .config
     make menuconfig
     make       2>&1 | tee om

than to write

     Unpack BusyBox's source, then run "make menuconfig"
     and "make" on its main directory

because if I had the second form in my notes I would have to translate
that from English into machine commands every time... So, those files
where I was keeping my notes contained "executable notes", or were
"scripts for Emacs", and I was quite sure that everyone else around
were also keeping notes in executable formats, possibly using other
editors and environments (vi, maybe?) and that if I showed these people
my notes and they were about some task that they were also struggling
with then they would also show me _their_ notes... I ended up making a
system that uploaded regularly all my e-scripts (no matter how messy
they were) to my home page, and writing a text -- "The Eev Manifesto"
([O99]) -- about sharing these executable notes.

   Actually trying to define an e-script as being "a file containing
executable parts, that are picked up and executed interactively" makes
the concept of an e-script _very_ loose.

   Note that we _can_ execute the Lua parts in the code above by
running the Lua interpreter on it, we _can_ execute the elisp one-liner
with `M-e' in Emacs, and we _can_ execute the shell commands using `F3'
or `M-x eev'; but the code will do nothing by itself -- it is passive.

   A piece of code containing instructions in English on how to use it
is also an e-script, in a sense; but to execute these instructions we
need to invoke an external entity -- a human, usually ourselves -- to
interpret them. This is much more flexible, but also much more
error-prone and slow, than just pressing a simple sequence of keys like
`M-e', or `F9', or `F3 alt-tab e e enter'.

File: eev.info,  Node: splitting eev.el,  Next: eesteps,  Prev: e-scripts,  Up: introduction

2.21 Splitting eev.el

     (find-eev "eev.el" "find-man")
     (find-eev "eev-mini.el" "find-man")

   When I first submittted eev for inclusion in GNU Emacs, in 1999, the
people at the FSF requested some changes. One of them was to split
eev.el -- the code at that point was all in a single Emacs Lisp file,
called eev.el -- into several separate source files according to
functionality; at least the code for saving temporary scripts and the
code for hyperlinks should be kept separate.

   It turned out that that was the wrong way of splitting eev. The
frontier between what is a hyperlink and what is a block of commands is

     man foo
     man -P 'less +/bar' foo
     # (eev "man foo")
     # (eev "man -P 'less +/bar' foo")
     # (find-man "foo" "bar")

   The two `man' commands above can be considered as hyperlinks to a
manpage, but we need to send those commands to a shell to actually open
the manpage; the option `-P 'less +/bar'' instructs `man' to use the
program `less' to display the manpage, and it tells `less' to jump to
the first occurrence of the string `bar' in the text, and so it is a
hyperlink to a specific position in a manpage. Each of the two `eev'
lines, when executed, saves one of these `man' commands to the temporary
script file; because they contain Lisp expressions they look much more
like hyperlinks than the `man' lines. The last line, `find-man',
behaves much more like a "real" hyperlink: it opens the manpage _inside
Emacs_ and searches for the first occurrence of `bar' there; but
Emacs's code for displaying manpages was tricky, and it took me a few
years to figure out how to add support for pos-spec-lists to it...

   So, what happens is that often a new kind of hyperlink will begin its
life as a series of shell commands (another example: using `gv --page
14 file.ps' to open a PostScript file and then jump to a certain page)
and then it takes some time to make a nice hyperlink function that does
the same thing; and often these functions are implemented by executing
commands in external programs.

   There's a much better way to split conceptually what eev does,
though.  Most functions in eev take a region of text (for example
Emacs's own "selected region", or the extent of Lisp expression coming
before the cursor) and "execute" that in some way; the kinds of regions

     Emacs's (selected) region   | M-x eev, M-x eelatex (sec. 4)
     last-sexp (Lisp expression  | C-x C-e, M-E         (sec. 5)
     at the left of the cursor)  |
     sexp-eol (go to end of      | C-e C-x C-e, M-e     (sec. 7)
     line, then last-sexp)       |
     bounded region              | F3, M-x eev-bounded,
                                 | M-x eelatex-bounded (sec. 14)
     bounded region around       | (ee-at [`` anchor] ...)
     anchor                      |                     (sec. 20)
     current line                | F9                  (sec. 15)
     no text (instead use the    | F12                 (sec. 19)
     next item in a list)        |

     Actions (can be composed):
       * Saving a region or a string into a file
       * Sending a signal to a process
       * Executing as Lisp
       * Executing immediately in a shell
       * Start a debugger

   ((Emacs terminology: commands))

File: eev.info,  Node: eesteps,  Next: eepitch,  Prev: splitting eev.el,  Up: introduction

2.22 eesteps

     (find-efunctiondescr 'eesteps)
     (find-eev "eev-steps.el"      "eesteps")
     (find-eev "eev-mini-steps.el" "eesteps")

   ((Simple examples))

   ((writing demos))

   ((hyperlinks for which no short form is known))

   ((producing animations and screenshots))

File: eev.info,  Node: eepitch,  Next: eepitch and rcfiles,  Prev: eesteps,  Up: introduction

2.23 Sending lines to processes running in Emacs buffers

     (find-es "davinci" "eepitch-gdb")

   (These sections - 20 to 24 - are very new (handwritten in 2007jul12,
typed a few days later). They are early drafts, full of errors,
describing some code that does not yet exist (ee-tbr), etc. Also, I
don't know Rubikitch's real name, so I used a random Japanese name...)

   Emacs can run external programs interactively inside buffers; in the
screenshot in Figure 5 there's a shell running in the buffer "*shell*"
in the lower window. Technically, what is going on is much more complex
than what we described in the previous section. The shell runs in a
pseudo-terminal (pty), but ptys are usually associated to rectangular
grids of characters with a definite width and height, while in an Emacs
buffer the width of each line, and the total number of lines,are only
limited by memory constraints. Many interactive programs expect their
input to come through their more-or-less minimalistic line editors,
that may try to send to the terminal commands like "clear the screen"
or "go to column x at line y"; how should these things be handled in a
shell buffer? Also, the user can move freely in a shell buffer, and
edit its contents as text, but the "Return" key becomes special: when
it is hit in a shell buffer Emacs takes the current line - except maybe
some initial characters that are seen as a prompt - and sends that to
the shell process, as if the user had typed exactly that; so, Emacs
takes over the line editor of the shell process completely. The
translation between character sequences going through the pty and
buffer-editing functions is very tricky, full of non-obvious design
choices, and even though it has been around for more than 20 years it
still has some (inevitable) quirks.

   I almost never used shell buffers, so I found the following idea, by
OGAMI Itto, very surprising when he sent it to the eev mailing list in

     (find-eevfile "doc/shot-f8.png")
     (find-anggfile "IMAGES/eepitch-gdb.png")
     (Figure 5 will be a screenshot that I haven't taken yet.)
     (It will be simpler than the screenshot from Fig. 6,
      that is this: http://angg.twu.net/IMAGES/eepitch-gdb.png )

   The current window, above in Figure 5, is editing an e-script, and
the other window shows a shell buffer - that we will refer to as the
"target buffer". When the user types a certain key - by default F8 -
the current line is sent to the target buffer, and the point is moved
down to the next line; pressing F8 n times in sequence sendsn lines,
one by one.

   One detail: "sending a line" means inserting its contents - except
the newline - at the current position in the target buffer, and then
running there the action associated to the "Return" key. "Return" is
almost always a special key, bound to different actions in different
major modes, so just inserting a newline would not work - that would
not simulate what happens when a user types "Return".

   F8-is-simpler-than-F9 --------------------

   Note that, in a sense, the action of F8 is much more complex than
that of F9, described in the last section; but user might perceive F8
as being much simpler, as there are no external programs involved
(Expect, eegchannel, xterm), and no setup hassles - all the machinery
to make Emacs buffers invoke external processes in buffers pretending
to be terminals ("comint mode") comes built-in with Emacs since the
early 1980s.

   Ogami's idea also included three "bonus features": window setup,
reconstruction of the target buffer, and star-escapes. In the default
Emacs setting some commands - M-x shell between them - might split the
current Emacs frame in two windows; none of eev's hyperlink functions
do that, and I have always felt that it is more natural to use eev with
a setting (pop-up-windows set to nil) that disables window splittings
except when explicitly requested by the user. Anyway: M-x shell ensures
that a "*shell*" buffer is visible in a window, and that a shell
process is running in it; this setup code for F8,

     (eepitch '(shell))

splits the window (if the frame has just one window), and runs
`(shell)' in the other window - with the right defaults - to force that
window to display a shell buffer with a live shell process running in
it; it also sets a variable, `eepitch-target-buffer', to that buffer,
so that the next `F8's will have a definite buffer to send lines too -
as target buffers need not necessarily be shell buffers.

   As for the star-escapes, it's the same idea as with F9: when a line
starts with a red star glyph, running F8 on it executes everything on
it - after the red star - as Lisp, and if there are no errors the point
is moved down. So lines starting with a red star can be used to set up
an eepitch target, to switch to another target, or to do special
actions - like killing a certain target so that it will be
reconstructed anew by the next F8. Note that once that we recognize
that a region of an e-script is to be used by eepitch there is only one
key to be used to "run" each of its lines, both the ones with red stars
and the ones without: F8. However, as with F9, the user must know what
to expect after each step. A badly-written e-script for eepitch may
try, for example, to "cd" into a directory that does not exist, and if
the next line is, say, `tar -xvzf $S/http/foo/bar.tgz' then it will try
to unpack a tarball into the wrong place, creating a big mess.

File: eev.info,  Node: eepitch and rcfiles,  Next: eepitch-gud,  Prev: eepitch,  Up: introduction

2.24 Using eepitch to control unprepared shells

     (find-eevfile "eev.el" "EEVDIR")
     (find-eevfile "eev.el")

   As we have seen in section 4, M-x eev sends the region to a
"prepared shell"; if the shell has the right settings for the
environment variables $EEVTMPDIR and $EE, and if it has the shell
function `ee', then running `ee' in the shell "sources" the temporary
script - corresponding to the regin - in verbose mode. Well, if Emacs
loads eev.el and the environment variables $EEVDIR, $EEVTMPDIR and $EE
are not set, then they are set, respectively, to the directory where
eev.el was read from, to the subdirectory of it given by $EEVDIR/tmp,
and to the file $EEVTMPDIR/ee.sh. Processes started from Emacs inherit
these environment variables, so a shell buffer created by running F8 on
these two lines,

* (eepitch-shell)
function ee () { set -v; . $EE; set +v; }

will be running a prepared shell. Such buffers can be used to let users
understand better how prepared shells work, and decide if they want to
patch their initialization files for the shell (see eev-rctool) so that
their shells will be "prepared" by default.

   (Note: I haven't yet played much with this idea - discuss running
eev-rctool on such shells (and a function that creates a buffer with an
e-script for that), and loading psne.sh from an unprepared shell).

File: eev.info,  Node: eepitch-gud,  Next: eepitch-gdb,  Prev: eepitch and rcfiles,  Up: introduction

2.25 Controlling debuggers with eepitch

     (find-angg ".emacs" "eepitch-gdb")
     (find-node "(emacs)Debuggers")
     (find-node "(gdb)Top")

   On *NIX it is common to keep debuggers separated into two parts: a
back-end, with a simple textual interface, and a front-end, that
controls the back-end via its textual interface but presents a better
interface, showing source files and breakpoints in a nice way, etc.
The GNU Debugger, GDB, is a back-end, and it can be used to debug and
single-step several compiled languages; the "Grand Unified Debugger"
mode of Emacs, a.k.a. GUD, is a front-end for GDB and other back-ends.

   Usually, GUD splits an Emacs frame into two windows, one for
interaction with GDB (or other back-end, but let's say just "GDB" for
simplicity), and another one for displaying the source file where the
execution is. Some of the output of GDB - lines meaning, e.g., "we're
at the source file foo.c, at line 25" - are filtered by GUD and are not
shown in the GUD buffer; and the user can press special key sequences
on source files that generate commands to GDB - like, "set a breakpoint
on this line".

   In order to control GDB with eepitch we need a window setting with
three windows, like in the screenshot in Figure 6.

     (find-anggfile "IMAGES/eepitch-gdb.png")

   The way to set up that does not integrate very well with the
"standard" eepitch at this moment, but that should come with time.

File: eev.info,  Node: eepitch-gdb,  Next: little debugging languages,  Prev: eepitch-gud,  Up: introduction

2.26 E-scripting GDB with eepitch

     # (find-node "(gdb)Set Breaks" "`tbreak ARGS'")
     # (find-node "(elisp)The Buffer List")
     # (find-es "lua5" "lua-api-from-gdb")
     # (find-TH "luaforth" "lua-api-from-gdb")

   We can use elisp hyperlinks to point to specific lines in source
files - and we can combine these hyperlinks with the code to set up
breakpoints, in two ways.

     *;(find-lua51file "src/lvm.c" "case OP_CLOSE:" 1)
     * (find-lua51file "src/lvm.c" "case OP_CLOSE:" 1 '(ee-tbr))

   The first line above contains an elisp hyperlink to a line in the
source of Lua. Actually, it points to the code for an opcode in Lua's
virtual machine that most people find rather mysterious. As the line
starts with `*;', an F8 on it executes a Lisp comment - i.e., does
nothing - and moves down; only a `M-e' (or a `C-e C-x C-e') on that
line would follow the hyperlink.

   The second line, when executed with F8, would go to that line in the
source, then run `(ee-tbr)' there; ee-tbr invokes gud-tbr to set a
temporary breakpoint on that source line (i.e., one that is disabled
when the execution stops there for the first time), and then buries the
buffer - the one with "lmv.c" - like a `M-K' would do; the effect is
that the buffer in that window - the top-left window in a situation
like in Figure 6 - does not change, it will still show the e-script.

   A variation on this is to wrap the hyperlink in an ee-tbr:

     * ;        (find-lua51file "src/lvm.c" "case OP_CLOSE:" 1)
     * (ee-tbr '(find-lua51file "src/lvm.c" "case OP_CLOSE:" 1))

   When ee-tbr is called with an argument it evaluated the argument
inside a save-excursion, and sets a breakpoint there; the effect is
almost the same as the previous case, but this does not change the
order of the buffers in the buffer list.

File: eev.info,  Node: little debugging languages,  Next: inspecting data,  Prev: eepitch-gdb,  Up: introduction

2.27 Two little languages for debugging

E-scripts for eepitch and GDB can be used to bring programs to a
certain point (and to inspect their data structures there; we will have
more to say about this in the next section). In a sense, as in
[Bentley], these e-scripts are written in a language that describes
states of running programs - and they can be executed step by step.

   These e-scripts, being executable, can be used in e-mails to
communicate particular states of programs - say, where a certain bug
occurs. Unfortunately, they are too fragile and may cease working after
minimal changes in the program, and they are almost impossible to

   However, the screenshot in Figure 5 suggests another language for
communicating controlling programs with GDB: the contents of the
"*gud*" buffer. After removing some excess verbosity by hand we get
something that is readable enough if included in e-mails - and to
extract the original commands from that we just have to discard the
lines that don't start with "(gdb)", then remove the "(gdb)" prompts.
As for the hyperlinks with `(ee-tbr)', they may need to be copied to
the GUD buffer, and not filtered out; we still need to experiment with
different ways to do that to be able to choose one.

File: eev.info,  Node: inspecting data,  Next: big modular e-scripts,  Prev: little debugging languages,  Up: introduction

2.28 Inspecting data in running programs

Almost anyone who has learned a bit of Lisp should be familiar with
this kind of box diagrams. After running

     (setq x '(5 "ab"))
     (setq y (list x x '(5 "ab")))

the value of y can be represented by:

      ___ ___       ___ ___             ___ ___
     |___|___| --> |___|___| --------> |___|___| --> nil
       | ___________/                    |
       |/                                |
      _v_ ___       ___ ___             _v_ ___       ___ ___
     |___|___| --> |___|___| --> nil   |___|___| --> |___|___| --> nil
       |             |                   |             |
       v             v                   v             v
       5            "ab"                 5            "ab"

   This representation is very nice - it omits lots of details that are
usually irrelevant, like the address in the memory of each cons, and
the exact names of each struct in C and their fields. But sometimes we
need to understand the implementation in C, and a more complete diagram
would be convenient. At least, we would like to know how to get, in the
C source of Emacs, from the address of the leftmost cons in the top
line to the rightmost "ab" in the bottom line - but how do we express
following the "cdr" arrows, the "car" arrows, and extracting the
contents of a string object in elisp, One solution is to use GDB, and
e-scripts for it:


   A "complete diagram" corresponding to the one above, whatever the
format that we choose to draw it, should include some information
explaining that "cdr" arrows correspond to "->cdr", "car" arrows
correspond to ..., and each string object corresponds to another kind
of box different from the cons boxes; to get to the C string stored in
an elisp string object we should examine its "foo" field, i.e., do a

   Obviously, this same idea applies also to other programs with
complex data structures - and for some programs we may even have
fancier ways to explore their data structures; for example, in a
graphic toolkit it might be possible to change the background of a
button to orange from GDB.

File: eev.info,  Node: big modular e-scripts,  Next: iskidip,  Prev: inspecting data,  Up: introduction

2.29 Big Modular E-scripts

     % (find-eevex "screenshots.e" "fisl-screenshots-modular")
     % (find-eimage0 "./ss-modular.png")
     % (find-fline     "ss-modular.png")
     % (find-es "tex" "png_screenshots")
     % (find-fline "README" "ss-modular")

   A shell can be run in two modes: either interactively, by expecting
lines from the user and executing them as soon as they are received
[[footnote: except for multi-line commands]], or by scripts: in the
later case the shell already has access to the commands, and executes
them in sequence as fast as possible, with no pause between one command
and the next.

   When we are sending lines to a shell with F9 we are telling it not
only _what_ to execute but also _when_ to execute it; this is somewhat
similar to running a program step-by-step inside a debugger -- but note
that most shells provide no single-stepping facilities.

   We will start with a toy example -- actually the example from
[Section anchors] with five new lines added at the end -- and then in
the next section we will see a real-world example that uses these ideas.

       Figure 4: sending a block at once with eevnow-at
       (find-fline "ss-modular.png")

       Figure 5: single-stepping through a C program
       (find-fline "ss-gdbwide.png")

   ((Somewhere between a script and direct user interaction))

   ((No loops, no conditionals))

   ((Several xterms))

File: eev.info,  Node: iskidip,  Prev: big modular e-scripts,  Up: introduction

2.30 Internet Skills for Disconnected People

Suppose that we have a person _P_ who has learned how to use a computer
and now wants to learn how the internet works. That person _P_ knows a
bit of programming and can use Emacs, and sure she can use e-mail
clients and web browsers by clicking around with the mouse, but she has
grown tired of just using those things as black boxes; now she wants to
experiment with setting up HTTP and mail servers, to understand how
data packets are driven around, how firewalls can block some
connections, such things.

   The problem is that [IT P] has never had access to any machine
besides her own, which is connected to the internet only through a
modem; and also, she doesn't have any friends who are computer
technicians or sysadmins, because from the little contact that she's
had with these people she's got the impression that they live lifes
that are almost as grey as the ones of factory workers, and she's
afraid of them. To add up to all that, [IT P] has some hippie job that
makes her happy but poor, so she's not going to buy a second computer,
and the books she can borrow, for example, Richard Stevens' series on
TCP/IP programming, just don't cut.

   One of eev's intents isto make life easier for autodidacts. Can it
be used to rescue people in positions like [IT P]'s(4)? It was thinking
on that that I created a side-project to eev called [" Internet Skills
for Disconnected People]: it consists of e-scripts about running a
second machine, called the [" guest], emulated inside the [" host], and
making the two talk to each other via standard internet protocols, via
emulated ethernet cards. Those e-scripts make heavy use of the concepts
in the last section ((...))

       Figure 6: a call map
       (find-fline "iskidip.png")
       (find-eimage0 "./iskidip.png")

     % (find-eevex "busybox.e" "bb_chroot_main")
     % (find-eevex "busybox.e" "bbinitrd-qemu-main")
     % (find-eevex "busybox.e" "iso-qemu-main")
     % (find-eevex "busybox.e" "iso-qemu-main-2")

   (4). by the way, I created [IT P] inspired on myself; my hippie job
is being a mathematician.

File: eev.info,  Node: loose ends,  Next: index,  Prev: introduction,  Up: Top

3 Loose ends

     What is automating a task?
     A tree of states
       (find-eevfile "README-0.95.2")
     actors, colors, and tones of voice

     manpages from remote machines:
       (find-eev "eev-sshot.el")
       (find-TH "emacs" "flipbooks")
       (find-eev "eev-insert.el" "ee-template")
       (find-eev "eev-browse-url.el")
     math glyphs (and fonts)
       (find-eev "eev-math-glyphs.el")
       (find-eev "eev-insert.el" "ee-wrap-eepitch")

* Menu:

* this document::               This document
* eev manifesto::               The eev manifesto
* dedication::                  Dedication
* eev-mode-map::                eev-mode-map
* alternative to customize::    A Lisp-ish alternative to customize
* running TeX::                 Running TeX
* ee-wrap::                     ee-wrap
* htmlizing::                   Htmlizing e-scripts

File: eev.info,  Node: this document,  Next: eev manifesto,  Prev: loose ends,  Up: loose ends

3.1 This document

This document is a _very preliminary_ conversion to TeXinfo of the "eev
article", whose HTML and source are at:


   Not only there are many incomplete sections, but there many things in
the conversion that should "work", and that currently don't: the "See:"
blocks, the embedded e-scripts (the ones with delimited regions and the
ones with lines starting with red stars can't be indented), the anchors
in the section about anchors (because `ee-anchor-format' should be
adjusted to non-unibyte encoding of the info buffer)...

   Also, at present it is not possible to generate dvi/ps/pdf files and
working HTML (with all the elisp hyperlinks htmlized, etc) from the
.texi file. Well, whatever.

   The .texi file is generated by running a .texi.lua file through the
Lua interpreter. The .texi.lua contains some macro definitions for a
simple - and undocumented - preprocessor, and the marked-up text that
becomes the .texi file. The .texi.lua and the preprocessor are not
included in the eev tarball, but they can be fetched from:


File: eev.info,  Node: eev manifesto,  Next: dedication,  Prev: this document,  Up: loose ends

3.2 The eev manifesto

     (find-eev "doc/EEVMANIFESTO")

File: eev.info,  Node: dedication,  Next: eev-mode-map,  Prev: eev manifesto,  Up: loose ends

3.3 Dedication

     (find-eev "DEDICATION")
     (find-eev "DEDICATION.c-r")

File: eev.info,  Node: eev-mode-map,  Next: alternative to customize,  Prev: dedication,  Up: loose ends

3.4 eev-mode-map

     (find-evariable 'eev-mode-map)

File: eev.info,  Node: alternative to customize,  Next: running TeX,  Prev: eev-mode-map,  Up: loose ends

3.5 A Lisp-ish alternative to customize

     (find-evariable 'ee-hyperlink-prefix)
     (find-efunction 'ee-hyperlink-prefix)
     (find-eev "eev-insert.el" "ee-hyperlink-prefix")
     (find-eev "eev-mini.el" "ee-hyperlink-prefix")

File: eev.info,  Node: running TeX,  Next: ee-wrap,  Prev: alternative to customize,  Up: loose ends

3.6 Running TeX

     (find-es "tex")

* (eepitch-tex)
* (eepitch-kill)
* (eepitch-tex)

File: eev.info,  Node: ee-wrap,  Next: htmlizing,  Prev: running TeX,  Up: loose ends

3.7 ee-wrap

     (find-efunction 'ee-wrap-file)

File: eev.info,  Node: htmlizing,  Prev: ee-wrap,  Up: loose ends

3.8 Htmlizing e-scripts

     (find-blogme3 "Makefile")

File: eev.info,  Node: index,  Prev: loose ends,  Up: Top


* Menu:

* $EE <1>:                               making progs receive cmds.
                                                               (line 12)
* $EE:                                   installation.         (line 11)
* $EEVTMPDIR <1>:                        making progs receive cmds.
                                                               (line 12)
* $EEVTMPDIR:                            installation.         (line 11)
* $S:                                    local copies.         (line 13)
* .bashrc:                               making progs receive cmds.
                                                               (line 12)
* .zshrc:                                making progs receive cmds.
                                                               (line 12)
* blogme3:                               htmlizing.            (line  9)
* C-x C-e:                               forward and back.     (line  6)
* customize:                             alternative to customize.
                                                               (line 14)
* ee:                                    making progs receive cmds.
                                                               (line 12)
* ee-anchor-format:                      anchors.              (line 13)
* ee-delimiter-hash:                     delimited regions.    (line 12)
* ee-delimiter-percent:                  delimited regions.    (line 12)
* ee-goto-position:                      hyperlinks.           (line 10)
* ee-hyperlink-prefix:                   alternative to customize.
                                                               (line 14)
* ee-once:                               delimited regions.    (line 12)
* eeb-defaults:                          delimited regions.    (line 12)
* eeb-define:                            delimited regions.    (line 12)
* eechannel:                             communication channels.
                                                               (line 12)
* eechannel-xterm:                       communication channels.
                                                               (line 12)
* eek <1>:                               eesteps.              (line 12)
* eek:                                   generating hyperlinks.
                                                               (line 12)
* eelatex:                               delimited regions.    (line 12)
* eelatex-bounded:                       delimited regions.    (line 12)
* eeman:                                 splitting eev.el.     (line 10)
* eepitch:                               eepitch.              (line  9)
* eesteps:                               eesteps.              (line 12)
* eev:                                   sending commands.     (line  6)
* eev block:                             installation.         (line 11)
* eev-bounded:                           delimited regions.    (line 12)
* eev-mode-map:                          eev-mode-map.         (line 11)
* eexterm:                               communication channels.
                                                               (line 12)
* environment variables:                 installation.         (line 11)
* F12:                                   eesteps.              (line 12)
* F8:                                    eepitch.              (line  9)
* F9:                                    communication channels.
                                                               (line 12)
* find-anchor:                           anchors.              (line 13)
* find-available:                        anchors.              (line 13)
* find-comintprocess:                    eepitch.              (line  9)
* find-file:                             hyperlinks.           (line 10)
* find-fline:                            hyperlinks.           (line 10)
* find-man:                              splitting eev.el.     (line 10)
* find-node:                             hyperlinks.           (line 10)
* find-status:                           anchors.              (line 13)
* flashing:                              delimited regions.    (line 12)
* following hyperlinks:                  forward and back.     (line  6)
* Forth:                                 dangerous hyperlinks. (line 10)
* highlighting:                          delimited regions.    (line 12)
* hyperlinks, following:                 forward and back.     (line  6)
* hyperlinks, returning from:            forward and back.     (line  6)
* LaTeX:                                 running TeX.          (line  9)
* Lisp:                                  sending commands.     (line  6)
* M-E:                                   forward and back.     (line  6)
* M-e:                                   forward and back.     (line  6)
* M-K:                                   forward and back.     (line  6)
* M-k:                                   forward and back.     (line  6)
* M-x eev:                               sending commands.     (line  6)
* mark:                                  sending commands.     (line  6)
* prefix arguments:                      forward and back.     (line  6)
* psne:                                  local copies.         (line 13)
* returning from hyperlinks:             forward and back.     (line  6)
* tar without -C:                        eepitch.              (line  9)
* temporary script file:                 making progs receive cmds.
                                                               (line 12)
* TeX:                                   running TeX.          (line  9)
* to:                                    anchors.              (line 13)
* verbose mode:                          sending commands.     (line  6)

Tag Table:
Node: Top183
Node: installation2681
Node: introduction2887
Node: abstract4760
Node: three interfaces5450
Node: one thing well7599
Node: making progs receive cmds8953
Node: sending commands11335
Node: hyperlinks13443
Node: shorter hyperlinks17798
Node: forward and back19188
Node: dangerous hyperlinks20896
Node: generating hyperlinks24527
Node: returning27656
Node: local copies29430
Node: rcfiles31152
Node: glyphs32130
Node: compose pairs34595
Node: delimited regions36514
Node: communication channels45010
Node: implementation of channels49650
Node: anchors52079
Node: e-scripts54176
Node: splitting eev.el57890
Node: eesteps61684
Node: eepitch62137
Node: eepitch and rcfiles67764
Node: eepitch-gud69275
Node: eepitch-gdb71225
Node: little debugging languages73192
Node: inspecting data74605
Node: big modular e-scripts76891
Node: iskidip78442
Node: loose ends80697
Node: this document81778
Node: eev manifesto83133
Node: dedication83324
Node: eev-mode-map83527
Node: alternative to customize83839
Node: running TeX84354
Node: ee-wrap84604
Node: htmlizing84767
Node: index84929
End Tag Table